i-adjectives, or keiyoushi are words that denote attributes or properties. Unlike english, Japanese i-adjectives inflect for aspect and mood.
An example: ちいさい chiisai (i-adjective: small) いす isu (noun: chair) = small chair
No definition yet'ku' adjective (archaic)
No definition yetnoun, verb, etc. acting prenominally (incl. rentaikei)
A noun, verb, etc. acting prenominally (incl. rentaikei), which means they are used preceeding a noun as a modifier. For example: ええ ee (used prenominally as an adjective: Good) おてんき otenki (noun: weather) = good weatheradjectival nouns or quasi-adjectives (keiyoudoushi)
na-adjectives, or keiyoudoushi are nouns that when combined with the copula (na) denote attributes or properties. When used without the copula (na), na-adjectives are nouns.
An example: きれいな kirei na (na-adjective: pretty/beautiful) ひと hito (noun: person) = beautiful person
nari is an archaic/formal form of na-adjectivesnouns which may take the genitive case particle "no"
Nouns which may take the genitive case particle "no". The genitive case implies possession, for example: 猫の手 (neko no te) = 'cat's paw')pre-noun adjectival (rentaishi)
Attributive adjectives, or rentaishi can only be used before nouns and not in a predicative position. Not to be confused with na-adjectives, they are older variants of the standard adjectives and can only be used in specific settings.
For example: 大きな ookina (pre-noun adjectival: big) にわ niwa (noun: garden) = big garden
No definition yet'taru' adjective
No definition yetadverb (fukushi)
An adverb or fukushi is a word that modifies a verb or adverb. In japanese adjectives can be conjugated to adverbs when in the continuative form (ku), verbs may also be conjugated into adverbs with the partical ni.adverb (with particle "to")
No definition yetauxiliary
An auxiliary is a helper word, usually a verb, that conveys additional information to the meaning of the main verb in a clause, for example providing a tense, mood, people, or numbers.auxiliary verb
Auxillary verbs add functional or grammatical content in addition to that information expressed by another verb. They attach to verb or adjective stems and conjugate as verbs. An example is ます ((i>masu) which modifiies the verb to become more politeconjunction
A conjunction is used to link words, phrases, and clausescounter
Counters or josuushi are used along side numbers to count things, actions or events. There are many different counters for different types of things/events etc, although it is possible to substitute counters with traditional numerals (hitotsu, futatsu etc) - however this is not preferred for native speakers. more information on wikipediaExpressions (phrases, clauses, etc.)
General expressions, phrases and clauses :)idiomatic expression
Idiomatic expressions are a type of informal language that have a meaning different from the meaning of the words in the expression. Japanese language contains many idioms as varied as classical chinese references to modern colloquialisms. An english example is: A dime a dozen which means something is common and easy to obtain.interjection (kandoushi)
An interjection is a word added to a sentence to convey emotion. It is not grammatically related to any other part of the sentence.noun (common) (futsuumeishi)
Common nouns or futsuumeishi are general words for any people, places and things. Proper nouns are specific names of individual people, places and things.proper noun
A proper noun is a noun that refers to a specific names of an entity, such as Tokyo, Mars or Michael etc. A common noun refers to a class of entities such as cities, planets or persons etcadverbial noun (fukushitekimeishi)
Adverbial nouns or fukushitekimeishi, are nouns that can function as adverbs or nouns. Nouns describing measurements, for example directions, distances or timeframes are typically adverbial nouns. An english example is: I ran for an hour (hour is the adverbial noun - it acts as an adverb to ran - the verb)noun (temporal) (jisoumeishi)
Temporal nouns or jisoumeishi, are nouns that describe a point in time relative to now (be it past or future). These nouns are typically at the start of a sentence and no postposition or modifier is required to use them. For example: ことし kotoshi (temporal noun: this year) かった katta (past-tense verb: won) = this year (i) won.pronoun
a pronoun is a word or form that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase. There are many classes of pronouns. Some examples in english are: i, you, that and me etcparticle
Japanese particles, joshi (literally "helper word") or teniwoha, are suffixes or short words in Japanese grammar that immediately follow the modified noun, verb, adjective, or sentence. Their grammatical range can indicate various meanings and functions, such as speaker affect and assertiveness. more information on wikipediaprefix
The japanese language contains many prefixes, they are usually used in compound nouns.
For example 毎 mai (prefix-noun: every) にち nichi (noun: day) = mainichi = every day
A suffix is added at the end of another word which modifies the meaning. For example the suffix さん san is used after a person's name to denote Mr, Mrs etc.Nidan verb (lower/upper) with 'u', 'ku', etc. endings (archaic)
No definition yetYodan verb with 'ku', 'ru', etc. endings (archaic)
No definition yetIchidan verb
An ichidan (literally one stage) verb sometimes refered to as a v1 class or ru-verb is a vowel-stem verb.
All ru-verbs end with either eru or iru, however not all verbs that end in eru and iru are ru-verbs. Confused? As your studies progress you will learn to categories these verbs accordingly with practice.
A godan (literally five stage) verb sometimes referred to as v5 or u-verb is a consonant -stem verb that ends in -au, -iu, -ou, -uu, -ku, -gu, -su, -tsu, -nu, -bu, -mu or -ru. Not all verbs ending in -ru, they may be an ichidan verb.Godan verb - Iku/Yuku special class
No definition yetGodan verb - -aru special class
No definition yetnoun or participle which takes the aux. verb suru
A noun or participle which takes the auxiliary verb suru. As the suru verb is used to express 'doing', the modified noun becomes a verb - for example the noun れんしゅう renshuu (Practice) becomes the verb れんしゅうする renshuu suru (Practicing)su verb - precursor to the modern suru
su verb is the precursor to the modern suru which is used to express 'doing'expression using the aux. verb suru(*)
Expression using the auxiliary verb suru which is used to express 'doing'suru verb - special class
There are verbs which which conjugate as suru verbsKuru verb - special class
There are verbs which which conjugate as kuru verbs. kuru generally means to come, to become etcintransitive verb
Intransitive verb is a verb that has no direct object. A intransitive verb decribes the state of something as opposed to changing the state of something.
For example まど mado (noun: window - the object) が ga (particle: indicates subject) しまる shimaru (verb: closed) = the window is closed
A transitive verb is a verb that takes a direct direct object via a partical, where the verb is an action applied to the object.
For example まど mado (noun: window - the object) を o (particle: joins direct object to the verb) しめる shimeru (verb: to close) = close the window
No definition yetverb - unspecified (usu. archaic)
The type of this verb is unspecified, it is usually archaic